Out Leadership’s Business Climate Index for the 50 United States is an assessment of states’ performance on LGBTQ+ inclusion. It measures the impact government policies and prevalent attitudes have on the LGBTQ+ people residing in each state, quantifying the economic imperatives for inclusion and the costs of discrimination. It equips business leaders and policymakers with a clear sense of the most impactful steps states can take to make themselves more hospitable to forward-thinking, innovative, inclusive businesses.
out of a possible 100 points
There are no statewide nondiscrimination laws inclusive of sexual orientation and gender identity, though there are protections for state employees. Ohio is one of three states that does not permit changing gender markers on birth certificates. It is possible to change gender markers on a driver’s license, but this requires a form signed by a physician stating the applicant is “ready for or has completed” a gender transition (surgery is not required).
Conversion therapy is legal in Ohio. LGBT+ people and couples are permitted to adopt in Ohio, but the non-biological partner in an unmarried couple has no claims to custody absent an official agreement. There are no non-discrimination laws or anti-bullying policies in place to support LGBT+ students in Ohio.
Ohio’s laws match federal laws protecting religious expression and the state has not adopted an anti-LGBT+ “religious freedom” law. Both U.S. senators have positive records of supporting LGBT+ issues. Though Governor Mike DeWine recently instated LGBT+ nondiscrimination for state employees, his overall record on LGBT+ rights is poor.
Transgender healthcare can be difficult to access under Medicaid, and the state has no insurance nondiscrimination protections in place for either gender identity or sexual orientation. The state does not ban private insurance companies from excluding transgender healthcare coverage. The state’s hate crimes protections do not cover sexual orientation or gender identity. A positive HIV+ status can result in a felony, and HIV is the only disease specifically criminalized in Ohio’s code.
19% of transgender employees in Ohio report being harassed in the past year due to their gender identity, and 34% report mistreatment such as being forced to use a restroom not matching gender. 33% of LGBT+ Ohioans report food insecurity, more than double non-LGBT+ Ohioans (16%). LGBT+ unemployment (11%) is more than twice the general rate (5%).
Download this report to learn how and why Out Leadership created the LGBTQ+ Business Climate Index for the 50 U.S. States, with important details about our methodology, including our data standards and practices. NOTE: *HIV criminalization laws are discriminatory and ineffective. These laws fail to account for advances made in treating and controlling HIV, may deter people from getting tested and seeking treatment, and can exacerbate the stigma targeting people living with HIV and LGBTQ+ people.Our Methodology
The legal and cultural situation for LGBTQ+ people varies widely across the country. This map, based on each state's total Business Climate Score, illustrates the states where LGBTQ+ people are empowered to participate more fully and openly in the economy, and the states that are lagging behind.
Our partnerships make our work possible. The first State LGBTQ+ Business Climate Index released in 2019 was funded by a grant from the Gill Foundation. The Index is based on data graciously shared by the Movement Advancement Project and the Williams Institute. Ropes & Gray is our pro bono legal partner for the CEO Business Briefs globally, and their research informs this Index. FCB partnered with us to conduct original market research into American attitudes toward LGBTQ+ workplace inclusion, informing the Regional Context section of the State CEO Briefs. America Competes supported the development of the scoring for the Risk Assessments, particularly for the Future Risk score.
Out Leadership and FCB partnered on original market research into the attitudes of American workers on LGBT+ inclusion, which fielded in 2019 and 2020. These briefs as a whole will be updated on an ongoing basis by Out Leadership because we recognize the ever-changing nature of policy on the local, state, and national level.
Only 50.8% of the LGBT+ audience in the Midwest are out at work. They are only slightly more comfortable being open with their managers than other regions (14% more likely), but they are the least likely to cover their identity at work (17% less likely than nationwide). This could be due to the Midwest having the lowest rates for observing microaggressions (23% less likely) and hearing or engaging in negative conversations on average. However, workers in this region do not typically go out of their way to do business with inclusive companies (21% less likely than the nation as a whole). This is primarily driven by those who live in more rural areas where respondents were 85% less likely to do business with companies that are inclusive.
Unless otherwise noted, all comparisons for more or less likely are compared to the National results. Regional results are based off of 1,500 respondents (LGBT and Non-LGBT responses have been weighted to be age-representative for each audience in each region). National results are based off of 600 respondents representative of each audience (LGBT vs Non-LGBT).
States in the Midwest region included: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin
Legal status of the Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Community
Legal status of the Transgender Community
Government statements and actions
For more context around these scores, and to learn more about the criteria we used to assess how state laws, actions and attitudes toward LGBTQ+ people create business and talent risks, please visit www.outleadership.com/staterisk.
Status of LGBT+ Organizing and Community
Cultural Views of the LGBT+ Community